What is a Company Voluntary Arrangement?

There can be many reasons why a company may face financial difficulties, and it’s important to deal with these in the most appropriate way. In this article, we’re answering the question, what is a company voluntary arrangement?

For some businesses, financial difficulties may be a result of a short-term cash flow issue. In other cases, the business could be burdened with historical debts, which are hindering its ability to thrive.

The company can take one of several options to overcome these financial difficulties. As there are so many available, it is advisable to speak with an expert in this field to help you properly navigate your way through the company’s challenges. Our business rescue experts are always on hand to provide confidential, director-focused advice.

What is a Company Voluntary Arrangement?

A Company Voluntary Arrangement or CVA is an option for companies in financial difficulty that could lead to insolvency. It is a legally binding agreement with the company’s creditors to allow a proportion of debts to be repaid over a specified period.

75% of the company’s creditors by value must agree to the CVA process, and if so, it can be one of the best ways for a business to recover and thrive after being burdened by historic debt.

A CVA is like an IVA (Individual Voluntary Arrangement) used by those with personal debt. It will allow the company to repay the specified proportion of its debts over 1 to 5 years.

CVAs were introduced to UK law in 1986 and are generally preferred by the government to save a company from closure.

Who is eligible for a Company Voluntary Arrangement?

CVAs can be extremely useful for limited companies which find themselves with mounting debts that they are struggling to repay and, therefore, are facing insolvency. It is also often the case that the debts might be historical and are holding the company back from thriving when it would otherwise be a going concern.

You may apply for a CVA under the following circumstances:

  • The company is currently insolvent.
  • An insolvency practitioner has determined that the business is still viable despite its current difficulties.

If the latter, the company must demonstrate that it will be able to repay creditors and honour other obligations, such as salaries and VAT and still remain profitable in the future.

what is a company voluntary arrangement

What’s the difference between a CVA and a CVL?

A company voluntary arrangement is used to overcome short-term problems. This means that the business can continue trading while repaying creditors over a period of time. In contrast, a creditor’s voluntary liquidation is used when a company has become insolvent, and there is no viable way of repaying creditors.

In a creditors’ voluntary liquidation, the insolvent company ceases trading, and the business will be closed. Both processes require the appointment of a licensed insolvency practitioner. We can help you decide which option is the best for you.

Is administration and a Company Voluntary Arrangement the same thing?

No, a CVA is different from company administration. CVAs take place before insolvency, whereas a viable company that has become insolvent would go into administration. A CVA is undertaken to avoid insolvency. Throughout a CVA, the company directors maintain control, whereas the appointed insolvency practitioner will take control of the business in an administration.

What is the process for a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA)?

A CVA process typically takes in the region of seven to ten weeks, and there are various stages to it. They include:

  • Appointing an expert adviser, such as a licensed insolvency practitioner (IP). They will assist in drafting a proposal for the creditors. However, there should be no significant changes to the company’s debt status throughout this period, and suppliers should continue to be paid, however possible.
  • A full review of the business will be conducted of all the elements of the company beyond the finances. These include the people and the market and will enable creditors to decide whether or not to support the deal when offered.
  • The draft proposal undergoes a period of review by the company’s directors in the first instance, and it must be agreed that it is to the creditors’ benefit. At this point, it could be decided that it would be better to close the business instead.
  • The proposal is distributed to the creditors, and a meeting is called for them to voice any concerns or ask any questions. Creditors will need to vote, and at least 75% (of the value of the debt) must agree for the CVA to be approved.
  • A further creditors meeting of the connected creditors will then take place (e.g., employees or directors), and 50% of these must also agree to the CVA proposal.
  • The insolvency practitioner will generate a report to detail the information in the proposal and the outcome of the votes etc., and this will be submitted to the court.
  • The CVA will then be launched, and the agreed repayments will need to start. The company debts are repaid via the IP, and the company is protected as long as there are no defaults on the repayments. If they do default, it might force compulsory liquidation.

what is a cva

What is included within a Company Voluntary Arrangement proposal?

Elements of the CVA proposal will include the following:

  • The backstory as to how the company has come to be in this position.
  • A true reflection of the company’s financial position, including the value of the assets, all liabilities, and any third-party property.
  • Cash flow forecasts will demonstrate how much the limited company is likely to be able to repay through monthly payments.
  • How long the CVA is scheduled to last, plus any expenses that are to be incurred.
  • How the money repaid is to be used.
  • Reasons the creditors should agree to the CVA, including evidence that it will be preferable long-term for the creditor as opposed to liquidation.

If the proposal is not agreed upon, a Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation process might need to be considered. Alternatively, the creditors may launch a winding-up petition to force compulsory liquidation.

How long will a Company Voluntary Arrangement last?

A CVA will likely take between seven to ten weeks to set up and agree.

After that, the most typical length of time for a CVA is between 2 and 5 years, although they can very occasionally extend beyond this.

The terms will differ per company according to individual requirements, such as the volume of debt and the ability to repay it.

How much does a CVA cost?

There is no set amount that you can be charged for a CVA. The cost depends on your personal circumstances and your ability to pay creditors within a fixed period.

Are all the creditors affected by a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA)?

In short, yes, all creditors will be affected by this. The process is legally binding for all of them, so 75% of creditors must agree before the CVA can start.

After the CVA proposal has been approved and reported to the court, there is a period of 28 days in which the unsecured creditors can still challenge it. There are certain circumstances under which a CVA can be challenged under the Insolvency Act, which include:

  • Unfair prejudice – if it is not fair to all creditors
  • Material irregularity – if the procedure was not followed properly

company voluntary arrangement

Directors and a Company Voluntary Arrangement

A CVA differs from insolvency procedures in that the directors remain in control of the company throughout. No investigations would be completed into company directors’ conduct due to the drafting of a CVA proposal. In very particular circumstances, the creditors may desire a change in management for the CVA process if they believe it will better suit their interests, but this is rare.

When it comes to any personal guarantees the director might have made, these will still need to be upheld through the CVA. It is usually the case that those who hold the guarantee will be invested in the CVA because it will be the best way to recoup their money. However, some creditors might become impatient through the process and utilise their personal guarantee to regain the money more quickly. We recommend that you take advice on this.

Unfortunately, there can be instances when company voluntary arrangements are abused to benefit the company, such as through breaking commercial leases for property, etc. However, the insolvency practitioner who would assist in forming the agreement will be well aware of this. Unfair action could result in a challenge to the CVA by the creditors. This would be done under the grounds of ‘unfair prejudice’. A fair balance should always be struck and maintained.

How does a CVA affect employees?

The point of a CVA is to assist a company through a period of financial difficulty due to accrued debts whilst it is still a viable business. As such, normal trading should continue meaning that the staff should not see any effects of it.

However, there are cases where a business restructure is required to become more profitable and satisfy the CVA. Restructuring the company could result in the loss of jobs, but some employees may be eligible for government redundancy payments.

CVA proposal

HMRC and a Company Voluntary Arrangement

Even if HMRC are the main creditor of a company, it is likely that they would still consider a CVA. For them to agree to one, it would need to have been a well-thought-out process with a clear benefit to all creditors and to the business itself. In fact, HMRC is likely to approve as many as 70% of company voluntary arrangements.

What are the advantages of a Company Voluntary Arrangement?

There are many advantages to using a Company Voluntary Arrangement. 

  • A CVA is an effective way of rescuing a business to prevent it from entering into insolvency, thus benefitting all parties involved and giving the business a brighter future.
  • A CVA can prevent a winding-up order from being issued by creditors.
  • A CVA costs less than other types of insolvency rescue processes (e.g., administration).
  • Clients and employees can remain unaffected, and the process can remain private.
  • The directors will maintain control of the business throughout the CVA, and as there is no liquidation, the directors will not be investigated.
  • The directors’ personal credit rating will remain unaffected.
  • A CVA alleviates creditor pressure and prevents legal actions from being launched.
  • If it is conducted without unfair prejudice, various contracts can end because of the CVA if they are not deemed beneficial.
  • Interest and charges can be frozen.
  • If debts remain at the end of the CVA period, the CVA can be extended, or they can potentially be written off.

What are the disadvantages of a Company Voluntary Arrangement?

  • The agreement of the bank may be difficult to acquire.
  • The credit rating of the business will be affected for six years.
  • Creditors may be impatient, given the duration of the CVA.
  • A CVA applies to unsecured creditors only, and secured creditors could still push for liquidation or withdraw funding.

What are my next steps?

If your company is burdened by debt that is threatening its viability, you need to consider your options, one of which could be a CVA. It is advisable to speak to an expert in this field, such as 1st Business Rescue.

Our expert team will review your position and advise you on the best course of action.

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I'm Chris Worden, Managing Director at 1st Business Rescue. With over 7 years of experience, I help UK directors navigate the complex world of UK corporate insolvency. We offer free and independent advice to UK directors and advise them about what options may be available to them if their limited company starts to struggle. I am passionate about helping other directors overcome their business challenges and get back on their feet, as I was once in the same position as them. I had a business that became insolvent, and the advice out there was confusing and overwhelming. I am here to provide honest and valuable advice to UK directors.  I am proud to say that we are one of the only 5-star corporate insolvency companies on Trustpilot with hundreds of 5-star reviews, and we publish videos weekly on our YouTube channel. Our channel is designed to educate UK directors about insolvency and debt advice. Check it out here:

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